When talking about fast cash loan applications, the principal sources of long-term finance for business firms are equity capital, preference capital, debenture capital and term loans. Equity capital is actually ownership capital, since equity shareholders own the company. They enjoy rewards, but also bear the risks of, ownership. However, their liability, unlike the liability of the owner in a proprietary firm and the partners in a partnership concern, is limited to their capital contributions.
Preference capital represents a hybrid form of financing- it partakes of some characteristics of equity and some attributes of debentures. It resembles equity in such a way that preference divided is payable only out of distributable profits and preference dividend is not an obligatory payment.
Term loans, also referred to as finance loans, represent a source of debt finance, which is generally repayable in more than one year but less than 10 years. They are employed to finance acquisition of fixed assets and working capital margin. Term loans differ from short-term bank loans which are employed to finance short-term working capital needs and tend to be self-liquidating over a period of time usually less than one year. Term loans typically represent secured borrowing. Usually, assets that are financed with the proceeds of the term provide the prime security. Other assets of the firm may serve as collateral security.
All loans provided by financial institutions, along with interest, liquidated damages, commitment charges, expenses etc are secured by the way of first equitable mortgage of all immovable properties of the borrower, both present and future and hypothecation of all movable properties of the borrower, both present and future, subject to prior charges in favor of commercial banks for obtaining working capital advance in the normal course of business. The interest on term loans is a statutory obligation that is payable irrespective of the financial situation of the firm.